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английский (ID:221922)

Тип роботи: контрольна
Дисципліна:Іноземна мова
Сторінок: 5
Рік виконання: 2015
Вартість: 20
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Назва: 1. Прочитати та перекласти текст. The management of time In any business, it is important that managers should be effective. They must be able to achieve their objectives, and to "get the right things done". For most executives, being effective is easier said than done. The problem is that there are so many pressure on managers, reducing their efficiency. For one thing, their work is fragmented. Most days, they are doing a number of tasks, some fairly trivial, others highly important. They find that they do not have enough time to devote to the really important jobs. Besides, sometimes they are under such pressure that they forget which jobs are important. The manager also faces another difficulty. He finds that other people take up a lot of his time, so that he has little time of his own. Just as he is ready to tackle that report, a customer will ring up unexpectedly. No sooner has he hung up than Bill, from Sales, drops by his office for a chat. He works on the report for a few minutes, then the Personnel Manager calls him. Could he interview someone tomorrow afternoon? And so it goes on. The manager must constantly respond to the demands that others make on his time. Things do not get better as he climbs higher in the organization. In fact, they get worse. The higher he goes, the more demands will be made upon his time. Because of the nature of the manager's work, it is not easy for him to be effective. He will have difficulty distinguishing between important and less im¬portant tasks. He will often feel that he has too many demands on his precious tune and at times will find it difficult to turn people away. There will always be someone - or something - to divert him from what he should really be doing. Effective managers learn how to manage their time. They cut out unproductive activities. They never forget that time cannot be replaced. Before being able 0 control his time, the manager must find out how he is actually using it. He must know where it goes. The best way to do this is to record how he uses time. The Usual method is to log the tasks he performs. Either he or his secretary keeps an exact record of how he spends his working day, or week. The manager should not rely on memory when logging time. Not many executives can remember, at the end of the day, all the things they did during the day. One way of logging time is to note down all the activities and indicate how long they took. This logging of time should be done once or twice a year. It shows the executive how he actually spends his time at work - not how he thinks he spends it. Once the manager has an accurate picture of how he uses time, he can analyze the time log. This will help him re-think and re-plan his work schedule. He can ask questions such as: Are some of the things I'm doing wasting time? Should I be spending more time on certain activities? Could other people do some of the tasks? Am I wasting the time of my colleagues? As a result of this analysis, the effective manager will start getting rid of unproductive, time-wasting activities. He will learn to say "No" more often to people demanding his time. He will start turning down some of those requests to give speeches and attend luncheons. He will, in short, be more discriminating in using time. He will also get rid of some activities which can be done just as well by someone else. Knowing how to delegate is an essential skill of a manager. This does not mean, of course, that he will be forever "passing the buck" to subordinates! But, where possible, he will try to create more time so that he can attend to important tasks. Having recorded and analyzed time, he can now re-shape his schedule. It is up to him how he does this. Some managers like to set aside certain times for important tasks. For example, they may work at home one day a week. Others earmark certain days of the week for particular activities, e.g. management meetings, production scheduling, staff appraisal sessions etc. One manager is known to spend ninety minutes at home, in his study, before setting off to work. A common method of managing time is as follows. The manager works out all the jobs he must do in the coming day or week. Then he lists the tasks in order of priority. He also sets deadlines for carrying out the more important activities. Peter Drucker, the American expert on management, believes that effective executives work systematically to manage time. They must acquire this "habit of mind", this ability to use time efficiently. Exercises. trivial - of small value or importance; trifling to face - to meet resolutely to tackle - to try to deal with (a problem or difficulty) to drop in(to)/by/over - to visit casually to distinguish (between smth) - to differentiate; to see differences between two things precious - of great value or worth to turn away - to send away to divert - to distract (attention); to deflect to log - to enter (data etc.) in a regular record to rely (on smth/smb) - to depend on with confidence or assurance to be dependent on to get rid of - to be freed or relieved of to turn down - to reject discriminating - showing good judgement or taste to delegate - to entrust (a task) to another to pass the buck - to shift responsibility (to another) to set aside - to keep for future use to earmark - to set aside for a special purpose to set off - to begin a journey to work out - to provide for the details of to set deadlines - to determine or decide time-limit   Назва: 2.Підставити відповідні слова в речення. 2. Fill in the gaps using the vocabulary listed above. Make any other changes in the following sentences if necessary. 1) He gave me a promise to that case. 2) People who are colour-blind cannot between green and red. 3) The crown is set with stones, including diamonds and rubies. 4) They had nowhere to stay so I couldn't them 5) He asked her to marry him, but she his proposal. 6) Sorry we are late - we the pub on our way to your place. 7) You need a password to in this program. 8) His daughter has an artist's eye. 9) Work at our department has to be reorganized. This is rather complicated task, so boss may ………..………. it to his assistants. 10)He didn't agree with everything she'd proposed, but, in fact, the objections he managed to raise were so 11) He just refuses to the truth. 12) Nowadays we on computers to regulate the flow of traffic in the city.   3. Answer the following questions to the text: 1) How is it possible for a manager to be effective? 2) Is being effective easier said than done? 3) What reduces manager's efficiency? 4) Why do sometimes managers forget which jobs are important? 5) What difficulties does the manager face? 6) How do effective managers manage their time? 7) Why is it necessary for a manager to acquire the ability to use time efficiently?   Назва: 4. Перевірити граматику й виконати завдання. 4. Check your grammar. Study this summary before you do the exercise that follows. We use the passive in English if we don't want to draw attention to the person who is responsible for a particular action or process. The passive is very useful when you want to emphasize the object to which the action or process is happening rather than the person carrying out the action. So we can say: The passive is used in English to focus on the action. Here it is the process or use of the passive we are interested in and not who is carrying out the process or using the passive (i.e. speakers of English). Consider some further examples: Company targets are set every year. The factory was set up in 1985. In these sentences, we're focusing on the company targets or the factory and we're probably more interested in when the actions happened than in who carried them out. We can of course leave in who is doing the action. We do this by adding by. For example: Production targets were met by the workforce. The focus is on the production targets, but at the same time we mention who they were met by, without emphasizing it. Rewrite each sentence, starting with the words given, so that it means the same as the preceding sentence. 1) The corporation's sales and service organization covers the country. The country 2) We enclose payment together with our order. Payment 3) The customer should receive the delivery by Friday. The delivery 4) They may have notified him before the invoice arrived. He 5) FCS are only marketing their new dental equipment in Europe. FCS new dental equipment 6) They have enlarged the premises since my last visit. The premises 7) According to a recent report the group is making similar investments in other parts of the world. Similar investments 8) The temporary clerk finally found the notes under the filing cabinet. The notes 9) We will produce the components at our Sao Paolo factory. The components……………… 10)We would reduce costs if we used less paper. Costs
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