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ONTNTS NTRODUTON 3 HTR 1. TH ULTURL VOLUTON OF 5 STORYTLLNG ND FRY TLS 5 1.1 Th ntn f fry tls 5 1.2 Humn ommunton nd th orgns of fry tls 12 HTR 2. BRTSH LNGUST ULTUR N 17 TH NGLSH UTHOR'S FRY TL BSD ON 17 FRY TLS OF . MLN 17 2.1 Th styl of . Mln 17 2.2 Lngust ulrts of nglsh uthor's fry tl 21 ONLUSON 30 BBLOGRHY 32
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NTRODUTON Though t s mossbl to tr th hstorl orgns nd voluton of fry tls to rtulr tm nd l, w do know tht humns bgn tllng tls s soon s thy dvlod th ty of sh. Thy my hv vn usd sgn lngug bfor sh orgntd to ommunt vtl nformton for dtng to thr nvronmnt.1 Unts of ths nformton grdully formd th bss of nrrtvs tht nbld humns to lrn bout thmslvs nd th worlds tht thy nhbtd. nformtv tls wr not gvn ttls. Thy wr smly told to mrk n oson, st n xml, wrn bout dngr, rour food, or xln wht smd nxlbl. ol told stors to ommunt knowldg nd xrn n sol ontxts. fry tl s ty of short story tht tylly fturs folklor fntsy hrtrs, suh s dwrfs, drgons, lvs, frs, gnts, gnoms, goblns, grffns, mrmds, tlkng nmls, trolls, unorns, or wths, nd usully mg or nhntmnts. Fry tls my b dstngushd from othr folk nrrtvs suh s lgnds (whh gnrlly nvolv blf n th vrty of th vnts dsrbd) nd xltly morl tls, nludng bst fbls. Th trm s mnly usd for stors wth orgns n uron trdton nd, t lst n rnt nturs, mostly rlts to hldrn's ltrtur. Tolty of rsrh s usd by th trnsformton of th gnr of fry tl t th rsnt tm. vrty of nw gnrs nd modftons of xstnt gnrs r ulr to modrn ltrtur. Th fry tl s subjt to suh gnr xrmnts bus of ts strt nd rognzbl nons. Th bst wy to tr suh modftons s dhron rsrh. Th tulty of th rsrh. Thr r tw mn rsns why th subjt hs nt bn ttrtv t lngusts: ts nntns wth th nn-lngust wrld f thngs nd ds, fr whh wrds rvd th nms, nd ts quvl stn s btwn dsrtv nd hstrl studs. fw brf rmrks, whh nssrly rsnt muh vr-smlfd tur, n th urs whh lngusts hs tkn n th lst hundrd yrs wll mk ths sr. Th objt of th rsrh s ulrts of nglsh fry tls. Th subjt of th rsrh s fry tls of . . Mln Th m of ths r s t mk dtld study f th ulrts of nglsh fry tls on th bs of stors of . . Mln. Wth th uros to hv ths m t s nssry to solv followng tsks: to dfn th ntn f fry tls; to xmn humn ommunton nd th orgns of fry tls to mk nlyss of th wrtng styl of . Mln; o dfn lngust ulrts of nglsh uthor's fry tl Th followng mthods wr ld n th rsrh: 1. Dsrtv nlyss; 2. Hstorl-hlologl nlyss; 3. omrtv nlyss. Struturlly th rsrh s subdvdd nto ntroduton, two htrs. Th frst on s bout thortl bkground of word formton nd gnrl noun bout nglsh noun. Th sond on s bout rtl wys of word formton of nouns n nglsh. lso rsrh ontns onluson nd bblogrhy. Th thortl sgnfn of th rsrh onssts n systmtzng th ssus onrnng dvlomnt trnds of modrn fry tls. Th rtl sgnfn of th rsrh ls n th ossblty to us ts rsults n thortl ourss n rhtor, stylsts nd txt ntrrtton. HTR 1. TH ULTURL VOLUTON OF STORYTLLNG ND FRY TLS 1.1 Th ntn f fry tls Fry tls r sub-gnr of th rtst nd ltrry gnr known s fntsy, th lttr bng gnr n whh lf - or t lst som st of lf - s dtd n n unnturl (ugh) nd hghly mgntv mnnr. Th roblmt word unnturl dos not mn unrlst or surnturl (whtvr tht mns), but, n fntss, mgnton, wondr nd fny ll ly vry mortnt rols. Th hrtrs oftn ngg n fntss, tht s, vsonry fns nd othr knds of mntl mgs nludng drms, dydrms nd hlluntons. Th orl trdton of th fry tl m long bfor th wrttn g. Tls wr told or ntd drmtlly, rthr thn wrttn down, nd hndd down from gnrton to gnrton. Bus of ths, th hstory of thr dvlomnt s nssrly obsur nd blurrd [4, . 29]. Fry tls r, now nd gn, n wrttn ltrtur throughout ltrt ulturs, s n Th Goldn ss, whh nluds ud nd syh (Romn, 100200 D) [31] or th nhtntr (nd 3rd ntury B), but t s unknown to wht xtnt ths rflt th tul folk tls vn of thr own tm. Th stylst vdn ndts tht ths, nd mny ltr olltons, rworkd folk tls nto ltrry forms [24, . 55]. Wht thy do show s tht th fry tl hs nnt roots, oldr thn th rbn Nghts ollton of mgl tls (omld r 1500 D), suh s Vkrm nd th Vmr, nd Bl nd th Drgon. Bsds suh olltons nd ndvdul tls, n hn, Tost hlosohrs suh s Lz nd Zhungz rountd fry tls n thr hlosohl works. n th brodr dfnton of th gnr, th frst fmous Wstrn fry tls r thos of so (6th ntury B) n nnt Gr [17, . 52]. fntsy ordnrly nvolvs th followng lmnts: frst, qust or journy of som knd, oftn nvolvng tsts, trls nd trbultons, wth bttl btwn good nd vl; sondly, fttous or lgndry l n whh strng, unnturl vnts our; thrdly, th rsn of strng, unnturl, fnful, vn grotsqu, hrtrs nd rous fors; nd fourthly, lssons n how to lv, volv, nd rlt to othrs nd owr-not-onslf tht s bl of frng onslf from th bondg of slf. Fry tls r not just bout fntsy. Tht grnd mstr of modrn fry tls J R R Tolkn wrot tht fry tls hv four mn uss: s, onsolton, rovry, nd fntsy. hv lrdy sokn, lbt brfly, bout fntsy. Th ds of s nd onsolton r frly strghtforwrd, but th noton of rovry s fsntng nd most mortnt on. Rovry s, ys, ll bout rgnng wht smngly, nd rhs tully, hs bn lost. thnk th noton of rovry wll b bom qut lr whn w strt to look t numbr of hghly fmlr nd oulr fry tls. Fry tls r rootd n orl trdtons nd wr nvr gvn ttls, nor dd thy xst n th forms n whh thy r told, rntd, ntd, rordd, rformd, flmd, nd mnufturd tody. Folklorsts gnrlly mk dstnton btwn wondr folk tls, whh orgntd n orl trdtons throughout th world nd stll xst, nd ltrry fry tls, whh mntd from th orl trdtons through th mdton of mnusrts nd rnt, nd ontnu to b rtd tody n vrous mdtd forms round th world. n both th orl nd ltrry trdtons, th tl tys nflund by ulturl ttrns r so numrous nd dvrs tht t s lmost mossbl to dfn wondr folk or fry tl, or xln th rltonsh btwn th two mods of ommunton [19, . 180]. Folklorsts gnrlly mk dstnton btwn wondr folk tls,