0 800 330 485
- 09:00 - 20:00
- 10:00 - 17:00
- .


  1. ³


: 62
г : 2016
: 1000
Introduction...3 Chapter 1. Theories of Communicative strategies ..7 1.1 Definitions of CSs......7 1.1.1 Five main criteria to define CSs..8 1.1.2 A concept of problematicity in CSs....10 1.1.3 Taxonomies of Communicative Strategies.12 1.2 Gender Studies and Muted Group Theory...16 1.2.1 Main references to gender..16 1.2.2 Is it true that woman and men communicate differently?......................................17 Conclusion......21 Chapter 2. Practical issues of the communicative strategies in the novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald 22 2.1 The Great Gatsby and F. Scott Fitzgerald .....22 2.2.1 General review of the writers artistic legacy...22 2.2.2 Fitzgeralds manner of writing .....25 2.2.3 Techniques and Style ...29 2.2 Analysis of The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald ...33 Conclusion .......52 General Concluding Remarks ...54 List of the references ..58
" "
Introduction Nowadays, how to communicate orally in foreign language learning seems to be equally if not more important than reading and writing. Due to linguistic globalization as a growing trend in the modern world, most of the worlds communities are multilingual, which makes contact among languages an important force in the everyday life. The word communication is derived from the Latin word "communico''. It means to share, to take part in, to join or to connect. In other words, communication is defined as a process in which a message is sent from a sender to a receiver. The sender encodes a message and the receiver decodes it. Communication problems occur when the encoded message differs from the decoded message (Williams and Kemper 2004). When these problems occur, learners manage to overcome them by employing what are known as communication strategies (henceforth, CSs) in order to fill in the gap between their communication intentions and the linguistic abilities they have. Popular books, such as Men are From Mars, Women are From Venus and Men are like Waffles, Women are Like Spaghetti, capitalize on the sexes inability to understand why their counterpart acts and communicates differently. It has been documented in many studies that women and men communicate differently (Otnes et al., 1994; Smeltzer, 1986; Kapungu, et al., 2010); however, the question as to why they communicate differently is quite disputed. While pop culture seeks the answer to this question through self-help books, scholars have been developing and studying gender communication theories for decades, arriving at varying conclusions and views. No matter who is searching for the answer, one thing is clear: communication is not meaningless discourse that only puzzles those in romantic relationships. It is an activity basic to academic expertise and creativity (Kramarae, 1989). Language and dialogue are important to theorists because they reflect the values and beliefs of a society. Even words that may at first glance appear meaningless in dialogue, give important clues about a culture and the communicator. For example, the word like when inserted into a sentence could mean similar to, or it could be a cultural reference that hints at the speakers valley girl roots. The label valley girl references individuals from the San Fernando Valley in California who have specific lifestyle habits and ways of speaking. This particular instance involves a certain amount of stereotyping, but theoretically, by studying the word like it may be possible to infer large amounts of information about an individual, because our languages are traditions, containing inventions and stories about the creation and organization of the world (Kramarae, 1989) This study will expand scholarly findings on gender communication, by examining discourse elements of a classic American novel: The Great Gatsby. The researcher will conduct a qualitative study to determine if discourse elements of muted group theory are present in F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby. Qualitative research methods are often defined as descriptions of particular situations, behaviors, people, and quotations from people (Newman, 1998). This type of research allows for theory to emerge from data; it is not imposed on the data (Patton, 1990). This critical discourse analysis will create a wide angled lens through which we can view language and gender in the text (Remlinger, 1995). This study will examine interpersonal theory in the dialogue and surrounding text of passages in The Great Gatsby, in order to identify how discourse reflects societys structure. The Great Gatsby has been examined as a historical artifact before, but never in connection with muted group theory. With so many documented sources indicating a direct link between Fitzgeralds life and culture and aspects of the text, it is highly likely that this analysis will draw a connection between The Great Gatsby and the societal structure of the 1920s. This is important because The Great Gatsby is used over and over again every year by high school teachers. Its influence and reach are felt as much, if not more, than when released in 1925. This study may strengthen the connection between interpersonal theory and literature by establishing the historical importance of The Great Gatsby. Every decade of literary production can be traced to the intellectual images of the country at that time, because language use both reflects and reinforces social structure (Evangelia, 2010; Edelsky, 1976). This study explores an area of communication that has not been examined through the lens of muted group theory. As literature helps communicate social, ethical and spiritual values of a time period, it is important that we consider how communication is portrayed in literature, and if muted group theory was embedded into dialogue representative of the 1920s (Konstantinos & Athina, 2009). Muted group theory examines how a cultures values are reflected in the way people are treated. Specifically, this theory examines groups that are marginalized and might not be allowed to contribute to society the same way a dominant group can. This theory will be discussed at length in the literature review. Since language reflects climate, any reorganization in a cultures collective thought process and expectations requires a change in that societys language and syntax (Kramarae, 1989). This is why word usage evolves over the course of time. Although many studies have examined muted group theory in spoken dialogue, few have examined how this theory affects dialogue in novels. Fitzgerald himself studied dialogue, and often wrote about his characters tone of voice and speaking mannerisms. Examples of this can be seen in his books The Last Decade, Tender is the Night, and The Great Gatsby (Coleman, 2000). In fact, Daisy in the novel The Great Gatsby has an identity that is almost entirely limited to the role she performs in conversation (Coleman, 2000). The Great Gatsby can provide insight as to the likely power distribution in the authors culture and time period. The reason for this is that not only does The Great Gatsby highlight important literary concepts and topics, such as Marxism, it also brings to life many historical aspects of the 1920s era (Ruggieri, 2008). In fact, unlike many authors who strive for a backdrop untouched by their time period, Fitzgerald liked to date his scenes by putting in them specific details his readers would associate with a particular year (Mansell, 1987). Fitzgerald lived during a time when gender differences were a constant social and political topic of American society. The 19th amendment allowing women to vote was even enacted in 1920. This habitual infusion of 1920s events and influences into The Great Gatsby provides an excellent palate for a study on gender communication. This study is divided into 2 chapters. The first chapter is the introduction to the study. The second chapter is the Literature Review, introducing The Great Gatsby and F. Scott Fitzgerald, gender communication research, dominant and subordinate group research, and muted group theory and practical analysis of text.